Bacterial infections after kidney transplantation may be due to surgical complications at the time of transplantation, nosocomial infection, immunosuppression or community-acquired infection. Bacterial infections from kidney donors or transplanted bloodstream can also occur. About 47% of kidney transplant recipients develop bacterial infections . Urinary tract infections occur at any time after transplantation and are responsible for the vast majority of these infections and are the most common bacterial infections that prolong or lead to re-hospitalization . Enterococci, staphylococci, enteric gram-negative organisms and P. aeruginosa are the most common isolated bacteria .

Infection should be sought in the pre-transplant work of candidates for original transplants from endemic regions, especially if eosinophilia is detected in peripheral blood. Any recipient of transplantation of solid organs from an evolving risk area hematuria must examine the urine to rule out the infection. Hematobium should be treated with praziquantel both in the previous and post-transplant periods, as chronic infection can cause squamous carcinoma of the bladder. Antibiotics treatment is different for recipients of solid organ transplants that develop cystitis instead of pyelonephritis. Empirical antibiotic treatment should be started pending the results of the urinary culture. When choosing empirical treatment, the local resistance pattern of the most common urine pathogens should be taken into account.

If the previous antibiotic treatment was sufficient according to the sensitivity data, urological evaluation is mandatory in patients with relapsed infection. If non-correctable urological defects are found and the patient has not responded for days kidney disease expert witness testimony after treatment, the presence of a deep-seated tissue infection should be assumed. In this context, long-term therapy (4-8 weeks) can eradicate the infection. If this strategy also fails, chronic suppressive antibiotic therapy may be considered.

The risk of infection has increased after a transplant due to immunosuppressive drugs. These drugs prevent your immune system from attacking the new organ, but they reduce your body’s ability to fight infections. Infection is another common complication that can occur after kidney transplant. The risk of infection is greater after transplantation because the immune system has been delayed by the transplant immunosuppressive drugs, making it more difficult for your child’s body to fight infection. Strippoli GFM, Hodson EM, Jones CA, Craig JC. Preventive treatment of cytomegalovirus vira to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of solid organ transplants. Human herpes virus 1 – herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 – and human herpes virus 3 – varicella zoster virus – are alpha herpes viruses.

HHV 6 uses the CD46 molecule as a receptor, but it can also infect other cell types, such as monocytes and epithelial and endothelial cells. The infection occurs as a result of reactivation in the first 4 weeks after transplantation, often in receptors not in CMV prophylaxis . Clinical manifestations include fever, rash, hepatitis, interstitial pneumonitis, encephalitis, leukopenia and myelosuppression. The diagnosis of HHV 6 and HHV 7 is performed by tissue immunohistochemistry or NAT tests of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Treatment includes reduction of immunosuppression and ganciclovir, but cidofovir and foscarnet have also been used (Green et al. 2004; Kotton and Fishman 2005; Dockell and Paya 2001).

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